Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Bienvenue sur le site PIAF Logo UCA

Home page

XYL'EM

Xylem Embolish Meter

Field portable kit

 

Hydraulic conductance measurements 

 Embolism measurements 

 Field portable kit. 

 Applicable to a wide range of species 

 Analysis and communication software included

 

APPLICATIONS

  • Hydraulic conductance measurements inside laboratory and on field.
  • Wood embolism and die back.
  • Water relation in fruit and forest species.
  • Transpiration modelling and irrigation monitoring.
  • Drought physiological impact.
  • Species selection for water stress.
  • Frost resistance for plants.
  • Studying of xylem pathology.

 

The embolism blocks the sap circulating and thus diminishing the hydraulic conductance of the conducting material; the technique for hydraulic measurement of embolism (Sperry and al., 1988)(1) consists in estimating the hydraulic conductance of little segments (a few centimetres) then resaturating the conducting material by putting a degassed and under pressure water perfusion on the sample. This perfusion will eject and dissolve the air of a certain number of vessels; The ratio between initial conductance and full saturation one provides a quantitative value of the embolism degree. This widely used technique needs a precision scales which means it is totally unusable on field.

 

XYL'EM allows to measure the embolism establishing without a precision scales; Due to its roughness, the kit can be intensively used on field as well as in laboratory. The simplicity leads to easier and faster measurements. A complete automated version is realisable, and also a High Pressure (HPFM) version.

 

(1) Sperry J.S., Donnelly J.R., Tyree M.T., 1988 - A method for measuring hydraulic conductivity and embolism in xylem. Plant, Cell and Environment, 11, 35-40.(2) Cochard H., Bodet C., Améglio T., Cruiziat P., 2000 - Cryo-Scanning electron microscopy observations of vessel content during transpiration in walnut petioles. Facts or Artifacts? Plant Physiology, Vol. 124, 1-12.

XYL'EM kit Design

Portable kit allowing the hydraulic conductance determination and xylem gaseous embolism of a plant sample.

plane of XYL'EM kit

 

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

Nombre d’échantillons

Diamètre des échantillons

Flux d’eau

 

 

  

 

Pression de mesure

Conductance (selon débimètre)

 

 

 

 

Pression de resaturation

Compensation en temperature

Capacité réservoir

Dimensions

Poids total

10

1..15 mm

0.1 .. 5 g/h

0.2 .. 10 g/h

0.4 .. 20 g/h

1 .. 50 g/h

2 .. 100 g/h

1..7 kPa (20 à 70 cm H2O)

0.22..77 mmol/s/MPa

0.44..154 mmol/s/MPa

0.88..308 mmol/s/MPa

2.2..772 mmol/s/MPa

4.4..1543 mmol/s/MPa

0..200 kPa

5..35 °C

5 litres

25/25/45 cm

10 kg

 

Tél : 04 43 76 14 01

        04 43 76 14 09

Fax : 04 43 76 14 10

Thierry.Ameglio@clermont.inra.fr

Herve.Cochard@clermont.inra.fr

logo Piaf_2017

 Copyright © 2009, INRA, All rights reserved