Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Bienvenue sur le site PIAF Logo UCA

Home page

,X-ray microtomography

X-ray microtomography at INRA Clermont-Ferrand

For more information, contact Eric BADEL (Eric.Badel@clermont.inra.fr)

What is X-ray microtomography?

X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method that allows access to the inner vision of an object (composition, arrangement, defects, porosity); that is to say without cutting the sample. The use of this technique is currently experiencing a boom, particularly in biology.

This imaging technique is based on the property of X-rays to pass through the material and be absorbed in function of the nature and density of the components they cross. A tomographic scan consists in the recording a series of digital radiographs of the sample at various angles. After a "reconstruction" computation, these data allow the 3D visualization, mapping real variation of attenuation of X-rays through the object.

 

Aiguille de pin
Douglas

Structure of a pine needle

Charra-Vaskou et al 2012

(Tree Physiology)

Distribution of summer embolism

in an annual ring of Douglas wood

Dalla-Salda et al 2014 (J Plant Hydraulics)

Therefore, the internal structure of the object can be described qualitatively and quantitatively:

  • Dimensional measurements in three dimensions
  • Spatial distribution of the various phases of a heterogeneous material.
  • Characterization of porosity (connectivity, etc)

Microtomograph "Nanotom" installed at INRA-Clermont-Ferrand

The characteristics of our Nanotom installed at INRA in Clermont Ferrand can cover samples from sub-millimeter to ten centimeters with spatial resolutions ranging from 1 to 50 microns.

The device consists of a model microtomograph "Nanotom" Phoenix GE company and a set of six work stations for the acquisition and processing of the 2D and 3D images.

Ensemble Nanotom
Interieur Nanotom

X-ray microtomography device at INRA Clermont-Ferrand

The sample room

Some characteristics of microtomograph "Nanotom" installed at INRA-Clermont-Ferrand (Crouël site):

  • An X-ray source-focus nano Phoenix GE (160kV, 15W, 0,9μm) equipped with interchangeable targets (tungsten or molybdenum) to pass through high density objects (metal, rocks, etc.) and for the adjustable scan of samples of low density as the original biological objects.
  • An imaging (2000 x 2000 pixels) of Hamamatsu 50 microns spatial resolution. Ability to create a virtual imaging to increase the field of view.
  • Reconstruction of the images on a cluster of four stations (32 GB RAM): 10003 voxels are reconstructed in few minutes
  • Spatial resolution from 50 microns to 0,9μm.
  • Maximum field of view: 80 mm.
  • Scan time from a few minutes to one hour.

Processing softwares and visualization of 2D and 3D images such as vgstudio, ImageJ, Matlab tools.

The PIAF applications

PIAF has developed particular expertise on the observation of biological objects and in particular on plants.

Few examples of observations: Hydraulic architecture and embolism of branches, tree stems, leaves, needles, starch in wheat grain, maize grain, biomimetic microfluidic circuit characterization, mouse bone structure.

Focus on our X tomography activities, in the news INRA website :

http://www.inra.fr/Chercheurs-etudiants/Biologie-vegetale/Toutes-les-actualites/L-embolie-des-arbres-en-direct

References :

Torres-Ruiz J.M., Cochard H., Mencuccini M., Delzon S., Badel E. 2016. Direct observation and modelling of embolism spread between xylem conduits: a case study in Scots pine. Plant Cell Environ. 39(12):2774-2785. doi: 10.1111/pce.1284

Dalla-Salda G., Fernández M.E., Sergent A.S., Rozenberg P., Badel E. and Martinez-Meier A. 2014. Dynamics of cavitation in a Douglas-fir tree-ring: transition-wood, the lord of the ring? JPH DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20870/jph.2014.e005

Cochard H., Delzon S. and Badel E., 2014. X-ray microtomography (micro-CT): a reference technology for high-resolution quantification of xylem embolism in trees. PCE. doi: 10.1111/pce.12391

Dalla-Salda G., Fernández M.E., Sergent A.S., Rozenberg P., Badel E. and Martinez-Meier A. 2014. Dynamics of cavitation in a Douglas-fir tree-ring: transition-wood, the lord of the ring? JPH (in press)

Torres-Ruiz J.M., Cochard H., Mayr S., Beikircher B., Diaz-Espejo A., Rodriguez-Dominguez C.M., Badel E., Fernández J.E, 2014. Vulnerability to cavitation in Olea europaea current-year shoots: more support to the open-vessel artefact with centrifuge and air-injection techniques. Physiol Plantarum doi: 10.1111/ppl.12185

Charra-Vaskou K., Badel E., Burlett R., Cochard H., Delzon D., Mayr S., 2012. Hydraulic efficiency and safety of vascular and non-vascular components in Pinus pinaster leaves. Tree Physiol, 32 (9): 1161-1170

 

logo Piaf_2017

Copyright © 2012, INRA, All rights reserved